OCD – Cognitive-Behavioral Model

OCD involves “intrusive and distressing thoughts, impulses, or images about possible harm coming to oneself or others”, which must then be neutralized through counter thoughts or behaviors to prevent harm or negative consequences from occurring.

Individuals with OCD assume that the intrusive thoughts are a sign that something terrible will happen, so they engage in all types of neutralizing, undoing, and compensatory behaviors (checking, washing, ordering, meaningless rituals, self-statements) in order to prevent negative outcomes.

The idea is that the OCD is maintained by the irrational belief that each time that an obsession occurs a compulsion needs to be […]

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How frequent is depression in children and adolescents?

At any point in time 1–2% of the children and up to 3–8% of adolescents suffer from one form of depression.
By the end of adolescence around 20% (one in five) of all people had an episode of depression.
Until puberty boys and girls have the same risk of depression.  In adolescence girls are 3 (three) times more likely to be depressed.


Risk Factors for Depression


Depression tends to run in families. About 50% of the risk for depression may be inherited.
It is more likely that adolescent depression is inherited.
Young children’s depression may be more likely related with […]

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TICS are…


Sudden, rapid (rarely last more than a second), motor movements or vocalizations. They are repetitive and do not have a rhythm.


Motor tics appear like “fragments of normal movement”. Some are simple (eye blinking, nose twitching, head or arm jerks, shoulder shrugs) while sometimes can be complex (appear to have a purpose, facial or hand gestures).


Vocal tics can be simple such as throat clearing, coughing, sniffing, spitting, or grunting or complex from sounds, syllables, words, with or without sense. Examples of complex vocal tics are repeating one’s own words (palalalia) or those of others (echolalia) or the urge to say […]

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Criteria for OCD

The presence of either obsessions or compulsions that are excessive, unreasonable produce distress or are time consuming (take more than 1 hour a day).


Obsessions are more than simple worries. They are persistent thoughts, images, or impulses that cannot be pushed away of one’s mind and cause significant distress.

examples: Aggressive obsessions (bad things to happen), guilt about lying or intrusive rude thoughts.


Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels obligated to perform. They are aimed at preventing some dreaded event but are clearly excessive or unrealistic.

examples: rituals to protect themselves from illness or injury, […]

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Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified are often seen as a spectrum of disorders named Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD).


One of the first steps in understanding someone with ASD is to understand their symptoms as they may often act in ways that may be hard to accept. The next steps are to understand the reasons why these symptoms occur, how modifiable they are and how to help.


The core difficulties associated with the Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are the following:

Problems in social interaction

Often, children with ASD may lack the interest to relate with others. As a result […]

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