The children meeting criteria for these disorders have a conduct that is socially unacceptable, they cause disruption in their classrooms and families, and find it difficult to learn from experience.


Often these two conditions are seen as part of a continuum of symptoms that that spans from the less to the more severe. Most often, the children with CD have been diagnosed at some point in time with ODD and the condition worsened.

ODD and CD are quite frequent


5% of the children ages 6 to 18 met criteria for ODD or CD in the previous 3-6 months.
Looking at any time before 16 […]

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The Four Major Types of Problems in ADHD

difficulties investing, organizing, and maintaining attention and effort
difficulties inhibiting impulsive behavior
difficulties regulating their level of excitement (modulating arousal levels) to deal with the current situation
an unusually strong inclination to seek immediate reinforcement (reward)

The child with ADHD will likely perform worse…


later in the day than earlier
when restraint is demanded (e.g. public settings)
with tasks of greater complexity that require organizational strategies
when persistence in work-related tasks is required (i.e., chores, homework, etc.)
under low levels of stimulation:

absence of supervision
absence of reward (reinforcement)

Consequences for the ADHD children and adolescents


Academic problems

Disruptive classroom behavior
Underperforming in school relative to […]

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In order to diagnose ADHD, the child needs to present with significant symptoms of inattention, impulsivity/hyperactivity or both. The dimension impulsivity/hyperactivity is often referred as disinhibition.

More than 60% of the children with ADHD have the combined type (both inattention and disinhibition), 30-35% have the inattentive type  (inattention without significant disinhibition) while 5-10 % of the children have the hyperactive type (disinhibition without inattention).

ADHD is fairly common

·         4.2% – 6.3% (up to 7-8% total) frequency among children

·         In US, 4-5% adults (12 million) likely have ADHD

·         males : females = 3:1

Risk Factors for ADHD

·         One parent has ADHD                                     x8

·         […]

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Scan50002 by T.Berry Brazelton, M.D. and Stanley I. Greenspan, M.D. (Da Capo Press, 2000)

We all wish that children engage in optimal performance at home, at school or with peers. Whenever there are problems though, one basic place to start the process of understanding the reasons for the problems is to ask the question:

“Are this child’s basic needs met?”

This book, written by two of the most reputable figures in the field, attempts to clarify this very issue.

They identify six “irreducible needs”.

1.       The […]

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between-child-and-parentby Haim G. Ginott; Revised and Updated by Alice Ginott and H. Wallace Goddard (Three Rivers Press 2003)

This book was first published in 1965, had multiple editions and sold millions of copies. All for good reason, as Dr. Ginott wrote the quintessential book of Positive Parenting. A beautifully written, moving book about the transformative power of communicating with respect, compassion and authenticity despite any circumstances.

He is urging the parents to become skilled on using the words recognizing that in real life situations we tend […]

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Posts on various topics, pertinent to the field of child and adolescent mental health.

The content includes book reviews, posts on diagnoses, treatments and others.


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